2016 Nobel Prize- Medicine/Physiology

 

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The Nobel Prizes, established by Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel in 1895, have recognized achievements in a suite of sciences and the people behind those scientific pinnacles. Here’s a list of the 2016 Nobel Prize winners, which will be updated each day as new awards are announced. Live Science also explains, in plain English, how the Nobel Laureates contributed to science and humankind

Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology

Fukuoka, Japan-born scientist, Yoshinori Ohsumi illuminated a cellular process called Autophagy, or “self-eating,” in which cells take unneeded or damaged material, including entire organelles, and transport them to a recycling compartment of sorts — in yeast cells, this compartment is called the lisosome, while vacuoles serve a similar purpose in human cells. To simplify the description of Autophagy, the process allows cells to destroy their own guts and essentially recycle them

Ohsumi figured out a way to observe the inner workings of yeast cells and reveal autophagy inside them. He went even further to identify the genes involved in yeast autophagy and to show that similar self-eating mechanisms occur inside human cells. His discoveries in the 1990s led to a new understanding of how the cell recycles its contents, opening up a window into the importance of autophagy to several physiological processes and even to understanding certain diseases. Mutations in autophagy have been linked to diseases such as cancer and neurological disorders like Parkinson’s disease.

For illuminating the weird cellular phenomenon of “self-eating,” Yoshinori Ohsumi has won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Little was known about the odd behavior until Ohsumi’s “brilliant experiments” in the early 1990s, according to a statement by the Nobel Foundation. In these experiments, the Fukuoka, Japan-born scientist identified genes in yeast that were crucial to autophagy, revealing the underlying mechanisms of the process in yeast and showing that similar mechanisms were used in human cells.

Discoveries by Ohsumi, who is at the Tokyo Institute of Technology in Japan, led to a new understanding of how cells recycle their contents, revealing how autophagy is key in other physiological processes, such as a cell’s response to infection or starvation.

The discovery can be traced back to the 1950s, when scientists discovered a specialized compartment, or organelle, inside cells that digested proteins, carbs and lipids (fats). Researchers later found, surprisingly, that whole other organelles were sometimes found inside this specialized compartment, called a lisosome. They knew there must be a transport system to get these relatively large cellular parts to the compartment. These travel vehicles, now called autophagosomes, transported “cellular cargo” to the lysosome to be broken down, researchers found, according to the Nobel statement.

One mystery that remained, however, was how the cell ditched and recycled larger protein complexes and wearied organelles. That’s where Ohsumi’s experiments come into play.

“The vacuole was thought to be just a garbage can in the cell, and not very many people were interested in its physiology,” Ohsumi told The Journal of Cell Biology in a Q&A in 2012. “So I thought it would be good to study transport in the vacuole because I would not have much competition.” (In addition, he said, an advancement in the lab he was working in also nudged his research.)

Ohsumi was interested in understanding autophagy in the human counterpart of the lisosome, called the vacuole. Yeast is often used as a model for human cells, but yeast is tiny. So, he had to figure out a way to actually see the inner workings of yeast cells.

“Ohsumi reasoned that if he could disrupt the degradation process in the vacuole while the process of autophagy was active, then autophagosomes should accumulate within the vacuole and become visible under the microscope,” according to the statement.

By culturing mutated yeast that lacked enzymes used for degradation in the vacuole, while simultaneously starving the cells to trigger autophagy, Ohsumi was able to observe vacuoles filled with small vesicles that hadn’t been degraded. He proved that autophagy occurs in yeast cells and went on to identify the genes involved in the process.

As for why he entered the research field in the first place, Ohsumi credits his father: “I was probably influenced by my father, who was a professor of engineering at Kyushu University. I was familiar with academic life while I was growing up. But whereas my father worked in a very industrially oriented field, I was more interested in the natural sciences,” he told The Journal of Cell Biology.

Ohsumi will receive this year’s Nobel Prize amount of 8 million Swedish krona (about $937,000).

Original article on Live Science

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